Myocardial infarction

What is myocardial infarction?

Myocardial infarction occurs when an occluded coronary artery leads to local necrosis of the heart muscle as a section of the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and blood owing to the occlusion of the coronary artery. The occlusion is usually caused by a bulge containing cholesterol on the artery wall, i.e., a rupture on the surface of the plaque. This leads to a blood clot that quickly obstructs the vein. Myocardial infarction is usually preceded by coronary artery disease. The interruption in the oxygen supply causes the symptoms known as coronary artery disease seizures.

How to identify myocardial infarction?

An extensive or congestive chest pain, usually at the centre of the chest, is a typical symptom of myocardial infarction. The pain may radiate to the arms, jaw, between the shoulder blades in the back or the upper abdomen and may continue intensely even if the patient is in a resting position. The patient may suffer from cold sweat, nausea, shortness of breath and energy depletion. After necrosis occurs, the electrical activity of the heart may begin to deteriorate, leading to arrhythmia or a heart pumping disorder. The condition also affects peripheral blood circulation and interferes with blood flow elsewhere in the body.

How do you treat myocardial infarction?

The treatment of myocardial infarction aims to maintain vital functions, such as breathing, heart rhythm and blood pressure. The objective is to prevent and treat severe arrhythmia. If the myocardial infarction patient has trouble breathing, he or she can be given additional oxygen. Pain treatment is very important because chest pain is severe in myocardial infarction. Medication is used to try to lower blood pressure and heart rate.  Myocardial infarction is most often treated by dissolution or angioplasty. Dissolution treatment is administered in the patient’s home or in the ambulance. In addition to any procedures, pharmacotherapy is continued long after the seizure. To decrease the heart load, heart rate and blood pressure are carefully treated, oxygen supply and fluid balance are ensured and any arrhythmias are prevented and treated. All treatment that improves oxygen flow to the heart and reduces oxygen consumption by the heart decreases the intensity of actual myocardial infarction.  Lifestyle can reduce the risk illness. The continued treatment of an infarction patient includes learning to live with the illness, quitting smoking, a diet that reduces cholesterol levels, exercise guidance, a rehabilitation course and the prevention of further coronary artery seizures. The medication of a myocardial infarction patient is checked to comply with recommendations. At the hospital, the patient is provided with instructions on how to prepare for the disease aggravating.


When to see a doctor?

If you suspect myocardial infarction, a quick assessment of the situation and rapid action are important, because the damage will advance quickly once the symptoms start. The larger the occluded coronary artery branch, the larger the section of the heart that may be damaged. Myocardial infarction is diagnosed using ECG and blood samples.